As far as a person is concerted He Can supplicate To Allah any time of the day, anytime of the night. 24 hours of the day but, there are some times which are preferred,that time you have maximum chances of accept your Dua . For example
- Immediately after the obligatory prayers.
- Specially the day of Jummah.
- When a person fasting, specially when he is breaking his fast.
- When a person praying in the sujood.
- In the late hour of night.
The beloved Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) said it’s mentioned in Sahih Muslim Hadith number 1655. The beloved Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ) said that there is an hour during the night. In which, there will note be a Muslim who will ask for the good without Almighty Allah granting it to him. That means there is an hour in which Allah whatever the Muslim asks, supplicate Allah will grant it. Further our beloved Prophet Mohammad ( ﷺ) Said it’s mentioned in Sahih Muslim Hadith number, 1657. That Allah descents to the lowest Heaven after 1/3 of the night is over. And then he says I’m your lord I’m your lord, is there anyone who is there to supplicate to me and I will answer him? Is there anyone to beg and I will grant it to him? Is there anyone that requires forgiveness and I will forgive him? So one of the good times is during the late hours of Night. Where Allah descends and the hadith continues and says, that Allah continues asking there questions till the dawn breaks. So one of the good times to supplicate is the late hours of night, just before dawn. So does that mean the last hours of the night? Meaning Tahajjud which you offer. Late one third or the middle third of the night.
And as far as the place is concerned, again a person can supplicate in any place. As our beloved Prophet Mohammad (ﷺ) Said it’s mentioned in Sahih Bukhari volume number 1, in the book of Salah, Hadith number 438. That Allah has made for me and the believers the full Earth as a place to pray. The full Earth is a place where you can pray to Allah but inspite, there are certain place that if you supplicate in the Mosque, specially and amongst the Mosque there’s is no better Mosque than the Haramain the first is Makkah the Baitullah and the second is the Masjid Al-Nabawi in Madina. Dose the situation or the circumstances of the supplicate. Have any bearing on whether or not Allah accepts the Dua? As I mentioned earlier that the situation or circumstances and if he asks Allah (s.w.t). He can supplicate to Allah (s.w.t), but there are certain situations which are preferable. For example, when a person is fasting, when a person is travelling, when a just ruler , when he supplicates or a just Imam or a farther supplicates his son or daughter, or person who has Halal earnings and he supplicates, or it can be a person who prays in Sujood.
As our beloved Prophet Mohammad (s.) Said it’s mentioned in Sahih Hadith of Tirmidhi in the book of supplication Hadith number, 3598. The prophet (s.) Said the prayer of 3 people is never rejected. Number 1, is a just Ruler or a Imam. Number 2, a person who’s fasting specially when he breaks his fast, and number 3, is an oppressed person and a similar Hadith which I quoted earlier of Al-Bayhaqi, where the prophet( m.s.) said the prayer of 3 people is never rejected, a farther when he prays for his child, a fasting person, specially when he breaks his fast and a travelling person when he prays. So these Hadith of the prophet (m.s.), these are the times which are preferred. When a supplicates as compared to other .